Orbital station "Salyut" - "Almaz"

The idea of ​​the space station - a Long-manned vehicles in orbit - were even Tsiolkovsky and Oberth, but really speak about it on both sides of the Atlantic after the flight of the Soviet satellites in 1957.
In the U.S., work on orbital stations shortly after the start of the military have a clear orientation in order to keep up with America in these matters, in the Soviet Union by the mid 60's conducted research work on the creation of manned stations. In addition to the OKB-1, which was assumed by the assembly in orbit to create a station that was involved in the work of the OKB-52 under the direction of V. Chelomeya. Moreover, if the TOC (heavy orbital station) Queen assumed team, then pushed Chelomei opposite idea (for the first time, however, as stated in the U.S. in 1958) - the station is displayed on the orbit as a whole, and its dimensions are determined by the possibilities of the launch vehicle.
The start of work on the project space station in DB-52 can be attributed to the October 12, 1964, when the chief designer offered employees the company to focus on creating visited manned orbital station (OPS) with replaceable by a crew of 2-3 people and a lifetime of a year or two. The station was designed to solve the problems of scientific, national economic and, above all, defense-and placed in orbit carrier UR-500K.   Draft project OPS, or rather, rocket and space systems, has received the name "Almaz" was adopted in 1967, an interagency committee of 70 eminent scientists and managers KB and Research Industry and the Ministry of Defence.
  "Almaz" was conceived as a space fotorazvedchik with comfortable conditions for the crew and good equipment by sensors, accurate system of its guidance, able to work much more efficiently unmanned "Zenith". Equipped with a powerful telescope, the station could not spend the film to shoot the entire route of flight, and only the most interesting to photograph objects selected by the crew with a telescope. Exposed film back to earth in a special capsule ballistic.
For delivery to the station crew and supplies developed its transport supply ship (TCS), calculated at the output of the same UR-500. Initially intended to provide and the station and TCS similar recovery vehicle, designed for crew descent from orbit, but this idea was soon abandoned. VA remained on the transport vehicle.
Station "Almaz" was adapted for continuous operation of the crew of three. Structurally housing OPS split into two zones, which can be described as a large area and the area of ​​the small diameters. Area of ​​small diameter was located in front of the station and closed during injection conical payload fairing. Next was a large diameter area. Docking transport spacecraft was to be done with the rear face of the OPS, where the spherical airlock (HQ), connects with a large transitional housing hatch in the rear of the bar code placed passive attachment point at the top - a hatch for access to the open space at the bottom - hatch in the cell from which it was possible to lower the capsule to Earth with the materials research. The capsule had its powder control, parachute system, resettable thermal shield and the landing bay to the lighthouse. Stabilization of her before turning the control carried out after proper spin orientation before leaving the station. HQ units are placed around the propulsion OPS, deployable antennas and two large solar panel. The tail part of the station with SK closed conical shield of screen-vacuum thermal insulation.
In front of the case in the area of ​​small diameter placed household crew compartment with beds, a table for eating, lounge chair and portholes for review.
Per household - working compartment with remote control, workplace, optical sight, allowing the surface to stop the run and see the details, panoramic-viewing device for a broad overview of the Earth, a periscope device for exploring the surrounding space. The back part was occupied by sensors and control system.
Large optical telescope for Earth observation ranked behind the working compartment floor to ceiling OPS. Supposed to shoot a land or sea, to show the film right at the station, view it, and the most interesting shots pass by a TV channel. The rest of the film could have come down to earth in a capsule.

 

 

Project military space station "Almaz"

  Given that the design-time OPS "Almaz" in the United States were working on various space inspectors interceptor satellites at the station were taken to protect against such interception and towing: OPS equipped with a high-velocity air gun design A.E.Nudelmana. It could bring the desired point in sight, turning the station.  Attack anyone "Almaz", of course, could not - it was a means of self-defense.
  Work on the space-rocket system "Almaz" were distributed as follows: the overall project, the station itself and BA TKS spacecraft designed in the parent organization Chelomei - Central Design Bureau "Engineering" (TSKBM), TCS (the Functional Cargo Block) - in branch № 1 TSKBM. Ibid UR500K develop missiles. Station, ship and vehicle were made at an engineering plant them. Khrunichev.
  Developing supply ship was late, and the first phase of creating a system of "Almaz" crew on Space Station had to be delivered "Soyuz". In this issue was a lack of cooperation between the bureau and TSKBM Korolev (TsKBEM).
  The makers of the complex "Almaz" by the customer have been put very complex problems on the characteristics of the equipment, reliability and longevity of its operation. And if by the end of 1969 to establish a schedule and some buildings OPS service systems clearly observed, the work on the instrumentation of the station was delayed.
By 1970, created the housing eight bench and two flight units OPS conducted ground tests and plant systems. Was determined to fly crews to the station, which were training in the Cosmonaut Training Center.
However the management of the industry required new space achievements for the 100th anniversary of Lenin's birth and the beginning of the XXIV Congress of the CPSU. Then a group of designers in TSKBEM headed by Konstantin Feoktistov offered to ready body station "Almaz", put on his enlarged solar panel, mounted life support equipment and an elaborate docking "needle", and the crew sent to any of the "Soyuz" (7K -OK). And the station, the crew and the ship can be launched using rocket "Proton-K".
The idea eventually captured the imagination of the Ministry of General Machine Building, and under pressure from his manufactured housing, equipment, and documentation of the equipment were transferred to TSKBEM where on the basis of "Almaz" using systems "Soyuz" in cooperation with the branch № 1 TSKBM less than a year, was set up long-term orbital station "DOS", which was held in the documents, under the designation "Product 17K."
DOS differed from OPS transfer compartment in the forward end of a small diameter, which made docking of spacecraft "Soyuz". In the rear of the station was installed modified PAT "Soyuz", power supply station was constructed for the using four small solar panels, are also taken "with" Soyuz "and mounted in pairs in the area of ​​small diameter and PAO.  The instrument for DOS also had very little to do with GPT "Almaz": the latter was much more full of equipment.
In connection with the acceleration of work on DOS for flights to the station in TSKBEM was hastily developed transport modification of "Soyuz", which has docking assembly of new construction.

Station "Salyut-1" and "Soyuz-11"

Station "Salyut-1" and "Soyuz-11"

DOC-1 was launched April 19, 1971, entitled "Salute". Perigee was 180 km, apogee - 214 km, inclination - 51,4 °. General parameters of DOS: weight - 18.6 tons, length - 13.6 m, maximum diameter - 4.15 m, the total pressurized volume - 82 m ³.
To deliver the crew to the station April 23, 1971 started the "Soyuz-10", but his crew (V, Shatalov, Eliseev and H, N. Rukavishnikov), docked to the station, go into it could not due to a defect in the node connections. After 5 hours and 30 minutes of flight in coupling ("Salute" - "Soyuz-10" weighing 26 tonnes) were held undocking and landing of "Soyuz-10" April 25, 1971 g.Vtoroy crew started June 6, 1971 in the "Soyuz- 11 ". At this time the astronauts GT Dobrovolsky, VN Volkov, and VI Patsayev went to the station "Salut". After 24-days, the crew of "Soyuz-11" while returning to Earth because of depressurization CA tragically died. After that, the station has existed for some time in an unmanned mode until October 11 Mission Control Center did not issue a command to re-entry into the atmosphere, where the station was burned, and its fragments fell into the Pacific Ocean. Total flying the world's first space station lasted 175 days.
Of instruments for the station, as already mentioned, was not too rich, since its main task was - as, in fact, for the "Vostok-1" and the first satellite - "put America pen." However, for the first time this was enough. Proud Yankee reiterated their place in the cosmos.
Second DOS was unable to be in orbit, and "Salute 2" was the third instance. Weighing station 18.5 t was launched into orbit launch vehicle "Proton-K" April 4, 1973 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Perigee of 216 km, apogee - 248 km, inclination - 51,6 °.
On the 13th day there was a loss of containment compartments ops, and on 25 April stopped receiving telemetry data. Station, after spending 34 days in orbit, is opened May 28, 1973 as a result of natural braking in the upper atmosphere and fell into the ocean near Australia.
TASS announced May 28 that "the mission of the complete" (not saying "successful"). Analysis of the causes of the accident suggest possible abnormal operation propulsion system, which led to a burn-station body. But, however, there is another view.
 The fact is that under the guise of a new "Salut" in orbit was "Almaz". And with a full set of equipment, including, apparently, with a gun. Therefore we can not rule out damage to the shell station in firing by shifting or impact gun powder gases.
One way or another, but the expedition did not take place, and the station itself without any benefit (or at least published), ineptly burned in the atmosphere.

Station "Almaz" ("Salyut-2")

Station "Almaz" ("Salyut-2")

Seventy-third year in general was bad for the program "Salut". The fourth orbital space station, called the Soviet Union "Cosmos-557", and in the U.S. - the "Salyut-3A" (DOS-3) weighing 19.4 tons was put into orbit by the carrier "Proton-K» May 11, 1973 - even before it burned down last. Perigee of 206 km, apogee - 225 km, inclination - 51,6 °.
Control of the station was once lost, and May 22, the station entered the atmosphere in Bolivia.
The trend could not stand up TSKBEM and guide the industry, and therefore, in order to prevent its transition pattern, the program slowed down the construction of stations. Pause went on modernization "Soyuz", completion of the plant design and testing of the equipment for it, including in space. For this it was taken 2 flights modernized 7K-T.
September 27, 1973 was put into orbit the spacecraft "Soyuz-12" with the astronauts - commander of the ship Colonel Vasily Lazarev and Oleg Makarov flight engineer on board. The flight was completed September 29, 1973 In order to improve the flight safety design "Soyuz" was significantly changed. Instead of a third chair was taken by astronaut additional life support equipment. Crew members at deducing the spacecraft into orbit, the docks and the descent began to wear suits, removing them during orbital flight. Another major change in the design of "Soyuz" - the rejection of their own solar panels. Since then, manned transport spacecraft "Soyuz" is supplied with electricity from chemical batteries, which limits the time an autonomous flight of two and a half days in jail. After docking the ship "Union" with the space station to the batteries can be recharged with solar energy station.
From 18 to 26 December 1973 was made an independent flight of spacecraft "Soyuz-13" manned by a crew of captain and flight engineer Peter Klimuk Valentin Lebedev. The ship was equipped with instruments designed for future use aboard space stations of the "Salute". Was tested a unique system of telescopes "Orion-2", which allows to spectrography 9.5 stars - 10-th magnitude in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum.
In the same year, and began the development of the transport ship - the future of "progress" as a staff chelomeevskogo TCS still not there.

"Soyuz-12" (7K-T)

"Soyuz-12" (7K-T)

  After all the modifications and testing, June 25, 1974 into an orbit called "Salyut-3" is derived OPS "Almaz 2", the construction of which measures were introduced to improve its reliability. Perigee of 213 km, apogee - 253 km, inclination 51,6 °. Autonomous flight station to succeed. July 3, 1974 Cosmonauts Popovich and Yu Artyukhin in the "Soyuz-14" successfully docked with the station and moved into it. The station started to work in manned mode. The characteristic features of this station is a more accurate orientation system and the use of solar panels which, turning on its body, can be set at the optimum angle to the sun. This ensures you get the most power without violating a given orientation in the space station.
Was carried out and the improvement of the order of the astronauts exercise. Part domestic premises occupied integrated simulator consisting of a treadmill like a moving conveyor belt and special load suits with sewn-in elastic rubber cords are created during the running load on the whole body and in specific muscle groups. In accommodation, the station had a wide selection of food and beverages that can be heated on an electric stove. There are also radio equipment, printing telegraph tape and a small library. To study the distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere used a spectrograph, to experiment in growing cultures of bacteria and test systems for regeneration of water from the air station. The astronauts also conducted thorough testing of all new technical systems that will be used in future space stations and space ships.
After successful completion of a mission July 19, 1974 the crew of the ship "Soyuz-14" returned to Earth. CA landed near Dzhezkazgan.

OS "Almaz" (Salyut-3)

August 26, 1974 to GPT launched the "Soyuz-15" with a crew of GV Sarafanov and LS Demin, but due to a fault in the convergence of docking with the station failed. August 28 CA ship landed in Tselinograd. After this failure, the station almost given up - more expeditions were not. September 23 gave the capsule returned to Earth film and other materials, and January 24, 1975, comply fully autonomous flight on the main and additional programs, the station on commands from Earth, was launched from orbit and sunk in the Pacific Ocean.
Meanwhile, on the ground has been working on a new "Salute", which was launched December 26, 1974 g - again to de-orbit the previous station.   It should be noted that if the plant is capable to conduct parallel production of two types of plants, "Almaz" and DOS, then manage simultaneously two manned space stations in the command-and-measurement system at the time was not able to. Control even one station required a clock hard work of all ground units, especially in times of manned missions. Therefore, launching the "Salute" produced in a certain order.
At the new station was expanded composition of scientific equipment, especially astronomy and astrophysics. Of course, all this required energy, and much more than the first "Salute." Therefore, the new station redesigned solar panels - there are three instead of four with a total area of ​​60 m ², attached to the main unit. To unload the astronauts from the tedious and painstaking work by targeting the station, which is almost essential when carrying out the experiments, using original autonomous navigation system "Delta". Some of the planned experiments included working with equipment for water to condense out of the atmosphere station that can be used for cooking, drinking and personal hygiene. The crew was held unique manufacturing operation in space - new reflective layer coating on both mirrors solar telescope.

Salute to -4

Took two expeditions to the "Salyut-4" in the "Soyuz-17" (starting January 11, 1975, the crew of A Gubarev, GM Grechko, landing February 9, 1975) and "Soyuz-18" (starting May 24, 1975, the crew of PI Klimuk and VI Sevast'yanov, landing July 26, 1975). April 5, 1975 the station was launched by the crew of V. Lazarev and OG Makarov, however, due to a fault when you reset the rear compartment third stage "Soyuz" went into orbit. The astronauts made the SA flight on a ballistic trajectory and landed in 21.5 minutes after the start.
For the purpose of life test machines and systems in the joint long flight to the station "Salyut-4" 17 November 1975 launched an unmanned spacecraft "Soyuz-20". "Salyut-4" ceased to exist on February 3, 1977, the nominal information from orbit. At that time it was a record.

 June 22, 1976 following the launch of the space station - "Almaz-3", known to the public called "Salyut-5". July 7, 1976 g, aboard the "Soyuz-21" was delivered to the station crew of BV Volynova and VM Zholobova. The work crew was to be held in about two months, but due to a sharp deterioration in health VM Zholobova flight was terminated August 24, 1976 Following the review of the astronauts combined medical board concluded that the observed in-flight syndrome was the result of Overload crew emotional stress. Noted chronic sleep deprivation astronauts violation of fiztrenirovok, inadequate emotional support from Earth. To prove the suitability of the "Salyut-5" for further use October 14, 1976 it was sent to the crew of VD Zudova and B. And, Christmas in the "Soyuz-23". However, the docking of spacecraft with GPT failed because of a defect in the antenna homing rendezvous spacecraft. February 7, 1977 launch of "Soyuz-24" with a crew of Vladimir Gorbatko and N. Glazkov was finally confirmed the possibility of further work with the OPS. Post mission February 25, 1977 the crew returned to Earth.
Station "Salyut-5" has completed its mission August 8, 1977, when, after issuing a braking impulse entered the atmosphere over a given area of ​​the Pacific Ocean. The program has been implemented, and more so since the manned station type "Diamond" in orbit is not displayed. In addition, the fifth flight of the "Salyut" The epoch of the first generation of plants. Next stop, although structurally was close to the old, differed from them the most fundamental way.
Station "Salyut-6" was launched into orbit Sept. 29, 1977. In addition to greater internal volume and increased solar station had two docking ports, which allows refueling in flight propulsion system and significantly expanded the capabilities of the complex. In addition, this arrangement allows you to return to the station in orbit collected from individual units that were sold after 10 years

"Salyut-6", "Soyuz-26" and "Progress-1" in the complex

"Salyut-6", "Soyuz-26" and "Progress-1" in the complex

October 9th to the station went "Soyuz-25", but docking failed. Moor failed, but communications are not united, and sealing the transition happened. After several failed attempts to tie with MCC ordered that the Kama Sutra, and October 11 Cancelled expedition returned to Earth. The crew managed to send only the second time - the "Soyuz-26" on December 10. In all, over the lifetime of the station "Salyut-6" 5 main work crews and 10 visiting. For the first time in the visiting crews were astronauts from other countries - first astronauts: Czechoslovakia, Poland, East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia, Romania, and she has also become the first ship with an international crew.
Furthermore, it is to "Salyut-6" were first otrabotanny specialized transport ships - "Progress", now almost every week flying to the ISS, and has commemorated TCS.

Supply ship "Progress-1»

Supply ship "Progress-1»

Built using the "Union", "Progress" in the first place, was to supply the station with fuel, so busy place lander fuel tanks, and in the former living compartment is cargo. The first flight was made in January 1978, and then launches them made with enviable regularity.
With TCS things were more complicated. Originally, it was developed by OKB-52 as part of the complex "Diamond". Ship consisted of functional cargo block and recovery vehicle. In contrast to the spacecraft "Soyuz", where the lander was placed under the orbital module, the recovery vehicle TCS held the top position, which ensures its safe escape in an emergency. This arrangement required the presence of the hatch in the bottom of the recovery vehicle to go to the crew in the functional cargo block. This solution is initially doubted by many specialists, but subsequent launches full-scale recovery vehicle confirmed the reliability of the design during the descent from orbit.
TKS docking assembly located at the rear end of the cargo module in the area of ​​larger diameter, which was supposed to place the capsule to release the information to the "diamond". Astronauts in spacesuits during the approach to the station were located directly at the docking unit and monitor operations through the windows.

TC station "Almaz"

This simplified procedure for docking, extended the review and allowed to leave the system and periscope camera, as in the "Soyuz". In the event of a shock when docking rapid depressurization case of TCS could not happen because of the large internal volume of the ship.
Works were not shaky or rolls, and the first copy of TCS was ready for flight in 1977 and was launched on 17 July as the "Cosmos-929". The next flight was only in 1981 - "Kosmos-1267" was launched on 25 April 1981. May 24 was separated from the spacecraft re-entry vehicle. June 19 is in orbit block landed on the "Salyut-6". Because the docking station station was designed to accommodate TCS machines were only tightened (mechanical locks are not closed).
Joint mission of TCS and "Salyut-6" lasted over a year. Crews during this time do not arrive at the station. July 29, 1982 a bunch of the "Salyut-6" - "Kosmos-1267" has been reduced from orbit.

But even before that, as usual, into orbit April 19, 1982 has been eating away the "Salyut-7". The new station has been modified compared to its predecessor the "Salyut-6" and was calculated over a longer period of operation (up to 5 years). Front attachment point was reinforced to receive heavy satellite "Cosmos" series, also increased their domestic living space, improved living conditions for the crew station. As compared to previous stations installed additional solar panels. For spacewalks at the station "Salyut-7" used advanced spacesuits "Orlan", which were calculated to 6.5 hours in space.
During the operation at the station "Salyut-7" has 6 main crew and five visiting crews. The expedition visited included the first astronauts France and India. The plant has only 21 astronaut, cosmonaut three twice and one three times.
Duration of the longest missions to the station "Salyut-7": 211 days and 237 days.
Of the "Salyut-7" was performed 13 spacewalks, totaling 48 hours 33 min. In addition, the station has been executed and the most complex flight ...

"Salyut-7" and "Soyuz-T"

"Salyut-7" and "Soyuz-T"

In October 1984, the station left the third expedition. The flight continued to unmanned, was preparing for a new expedition - to fly on spacecraft "Soyuz T-13" and the long-term expedition ACS "Salyut-7" preparing the main crew members Vladimir Vasyutin, Victor Savin and Alexander Volkov. The flight was quite specific, planned work with heavy transport ship "Kosmos-1686" and the experimental apparatus "Peony".
Start "Soyuz T-13" is scheduled for May 1985. Near the end of a long flight to the station crew Vasyutin should arrive Visiting - "Soyuz T-14" with a female crew (Savitskaya, Ivanov Dobrokvashina). Further planned perform another long flight on "Salyut-7" - on "Soyuz T-15" - after which the operation was to be introduced next-generation station "Mir".
But the unexpected happened - the station has started to behave inappropriately. February 11, 1985 at the station there was a serious accident. Because of the failure of one of the sensors station batteries disconnected from the solar panels, makeup ended, there was a low battery. Without power to stop work all plant systems, including thermal control system, control and stabilization, command and telemetry system - in short, the station became the cooling corpse. The situation on Earth was very nervous - no joke - 20-ton pig, slowly losing speed and altitude and able to collapse anywhere ...
In the end, it was decided to: urgently retrained "Soyuz-T13" for the rescue mission, which went Dzhanibekov and Savinykh. The ship was launched on June 6, and 10 - for the first time in history - landed on undirected, uncontrolled de-energized and the station. Repair failed, the station was revived and operated for about a year.
Even the "Salyut-7" was the first station, which could fully operate chelomeevskie transports. TCS number 16401, flew to the station "Salyut-7", which has taken specific measures to compatible docking ports, so that on board were able to work the astronauts. The ship was launched under the name "Cosmos-1443" March 2, 1983, and docked with the space station on March 10, bringing back different loads. August 14 TCS set sail from the "Salyut-7", and on August 23 he was separated from the recovery vehicle, successfully stranded on Earth. The ship "TCS" first discharge its cargo functions. In 1982, it was decided to install the latest upgraded ship "TCS-M", flying the "Salyut-7", set the "Pion-K." This complex of about 1,400 kilograms was created under the leadership of Herman R. Pekka in CDB "Photon" (Kazan). "Pion-K" was intended in the first place to observe sea military bases and ships, as well as a variety of surface objects potential enemy. The ship "TCS-M" was launched Sept. 27, 1985, were designated as "Kosmos-1686". With complex "Pion-K" to "Salyut-7" failed to work. The astronauts moved it to the "world", there was fixed, and only then have followed the testing program.
Last expedition to the station on May 5, 1986. It was the last flight of the "Union" Series "T" and the first expedition that started not from the ground, and on the other space station. February 20, 1986 was put into orbit station "Mir", and February 7, 1991 a bunch of the "Salyut-7" - "Kosmos-1686" has gone out of control of the orbit and ceased to exist in the dense layers of the atmosphere. Unburned fragments fell in sparsely populated areas on the border of Chile and Argentina, without causing any harm. The "Fireworks" was over.

A bunch of TCS, "Salyut-7" and "Soyuz-T15"

A bunch of TCS, "Salyut-7" and "Soyuz-T15"

Meanwhile, not going to give up and competitors. Work on a manned station was TSKBM and folded in 1978, but continued to develop Chelomei unmanned spy on the basis of "Almaz". By dropping the systems associated with the presence of the station astronauts, the station managed to place a large complex of equipment for remote sensing studies of the Earth, including a unique side-looking radar with high resolution. Prepared for launch in 1981, the automatic station "Almaz" was lying in one of the shops of the assembly and test facility Baikonur until 1985 After years of delays, non-ops work on (in all probability - a consequence of conflict Chelomeya with everyone) attempt was made to run the station, were unsuccessful due to control system failure "Proton".

The space station "Almaz" ("Kosmos-1870")

The space station "Almaz" ("Kosmos-1870")

A modified version of the station "Almaz-1B". Not started.

A modified version of the station "Almaz-1B". Not started.

 Finally, July 18, 1987 held a successful launch of automatic version station "Almaz" under the symbol "Kosmos-1870". Since she had to get high quality radar images of the Earth's surface. The second satellite in the series was launched on 31 March 1991 under his real name of "Almaz-1." The first station went out of orbit in July 1989, the second - in October 1992. The resulting data is arranged flights and military - as with high accuracy to track the status of U.S. nuclear forces, and scientists - have learned a lot about the world's oceans. Begs the new flights, but the country has begun the "democratic" bacchanalia, and destruction of the Ministry of General Machine Building barely able to salvage something from the space industry.  On the "Almazes" had forgotten, and, apparently - forever. The world's first space station construction program finalized.